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Mosaddeq's overthrow, still given as a reason for the Iranian mistrust of British and American politicians, consolidated the Shah's rule for the next 26 years until the Islamic revolution. It was aimed at making sure the Iranian monarchy would safeguard the west's oil interests in the country. The archived CIA documents include a draft internal history of the coup titled "Campaign to install a pro-western government in Iran" , which defines the objective of the campaign as "through legal, or quasi-legal, methods to effect the fall of the Mosaddeq government; and to replace it with a pro-western government under the Shah's leadership with Zahedi as its prime minister".

One document describes Mosaddeq as one of the "most mercurial, maddening, adroit and provocative leaders with whom they [the US and Britain] had ever dealt". The document says Mosaddeq "found the British evil, not incomprehensible" and "he and millions of Iranians believed that for centuries Britain had manipulated their country for British ends".

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Another document refers to conducting a "war of nerves" against Mossadeq. Unlike other nationalist leaders, including Egypt's Gamal Abdel Nasser, Mosaddeq epitomised a unique "anti-colonial" figure who was also committed to democratic values and human rights, Abrahamian argued.

Some analysts argue that Mosaddeq failed to compromise with the west and the coup took place against the backdrop of communism fears in Iran. Despite the latest releases, a significant number of documents about the coup remain secret. Malcolm Byrne, deputy director of the national security archive, has called on the US intelligence authorities to release the remaining records and documents. The basic facts are widely known to every school child in Iran," he said.

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In recent years Iranian politicians have sought to compare the dispute over the country's nuclear activities to that of the oil nationalisation under Mosaddeq: supporters of the former president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad often invoke the coup. US officials have previously expressed regret about the coup but have fallen short of issuing an official apology. In Niger, for example, the literacy rate of the youth years is only While the earliest forms of written communication date back to about 3,, BCE, literacy remained for centuries a very restricted technology closely associated with the exercise of power.

It was only until the Middle Ages that book production started growing and literacy among the general population slowly started becoming important in the Western World. It was only in the 19th and 20th centuries that rates of literacy approached universality in early-industrialized countries. The following visualization presents estimates of world literacy for the period As we can see, literacy rates grew constantly but rather slowly until the beginning of the twentieth century.

And the rate of growth really climbed after the middle of the 20th century, when the expansion of basic education became a global priority. You can read more about the expansion of education systems around the world in our entry on Financing Education. The following visualization shows the spread of literacy in Europe since the 15th century, based on estimates from Buringh and Van Zanden 3. As it can be seen, the rising levels of education in Europe foreshadowed the emergence of modern societies.

Particularly fast improvements in literacy took place across Northwest Europe in the period As we discuss below, widespread literacy is considered a legacy of the Age of Enlightenment. We have already pointed out that Northwest Europe made significant improvements in literacy in the period Here we use historical estimates from England — a country that was very much at the center of the development of modernity — to show how the process towards universal literacy took place.

Specifically, the following graph from Clark 4 shows how modernization — characterized by science, technological progress, freedom and tolerance — was enabled by improving the education of ever-larger shares of the population. It also shows how this process of expansion led to a reduction in education gender inequality.

An international history of British power, 1957-1970

The expansion of literacy in early-industrialized countries helped reduce within-country inequalities. In the preceding visualization we showed that England virtually closed literacy gender gaps by Here we provide evidence of literacy gaps across races in the US. The following visualization shows illiteracy rates by race for the period As we can see, in order to reach near universal levels of literacy, the US had to close the race gap.

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This was eventually achieved around In our entry on Financing Education , we show that an important consequence of the global education expansion is a reduction in education inequality across the globe. Here we want to provide evidence of how inequality in literacy, specifically, has been going down.

The following visualization shows literacy by age group for different country groups. The left panel corresponds to , and the right panel to We can see that all regions made substantial progress across the board — so the series in are much more compressed towards the top than in We can also see that younger generations are progressively better educated than older generations.

And it is particularly promising that this intergenerational change is happening especially quickly in the least educated regions of our world: notice how the slopes of the lines in the least educated countries become progressively steeper. We come back to an analysis of intergenerational literacy gaps below. In Sub-Saharan Africa in , for example, the literacy rate for the youngest population group was more than three times higher than that for the oldest population group.

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It may seem obvious, but it is still worth pointing out that in all the statistics shown here we have never seen a reversal of this positive development. The average literacy rates in different world regions since can be seen in this chart. As pointed out above, Europe pioneered the expansion of basic education — but global literacy rates only started really climbing in the second half of the 20th century, when the expansion of basic education became a global priority.

Here we present evidence of important recent achievements in Latin America, where literacy has dramatically increased in the past century. As it can be seen, many nations have gained percentage points in literacy during this period.

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Despite these improvements, however, there is still a wide disparity between nations. Here you can see that, at the turn of the 21st century, half of the population in poor countries such as Haiti remains illiterate. This motivates the next visualization, where we discuss cross-country heterogeneity in more detail. The following interactive map shows literacy rates around the world, using recent estimates published in the CIA Factbook. Despite progress in the long run, however, large inequalities remain, notably between sub-Saharan Africa and the rest of the world.

To assess the extent to which progress can be expected in the years to come, it is convenient to break down literacy estimates by age groups.

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As it can be seen, in the majority of nations there is a large difference in literacy rates across generations you can change the map to show literacy rates for different groups by clicking on the corresponding buttons at the top. These large differences across generations point to a global trend: the high literacy rate among the youth indicates that as time passes, the literacy rate for the overall population will continue to increase.

We highlighted above the fact that most low and middle income countries feature large differences in literacy rates across generations. The visualization below shows specifically how remarkably large these differences are in Northern Africa and the Middle East. The following scatter plot emphasises the point already made.

As you can see, younger generations are more likely to be literate than older generations around the world.

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And in some countries the gaps are dramatic. In the chart below you can use the slider at the bottom to check how these generational gaps have been changing in recent decades. You can see that throughout Africa the changes have been mainly horizontal i. This is in contrast to richer regions, such as Europe, where the expansion of education started earlier and as a consequence changes have been mainly vertical e. The visualization below shows that particularly in many poorer countries the literacy rate for young women is lower than the rate for young men.

CIA admits role in 1953 Iranian coup

This chart shows the literacy rate by sex over time. This visualization shows the ratio of the literacy rate between young women and men around the world. Numeracy is the ability to understand and work with numbers.